What is web site optimization

What is web site optimization

Search engine optimization (SEO), or website optimization, is the process of making changes to your website so that it will appear higher in search engine results pages (SERPS). Based on a number of factors, search engines evaluate your website’s relevance and readability before assigning it a position or ranking on the search engine results page. The more relevance the search engines determine your website has for a given search, the higher the website will rank. When you consider that more than 60% of Internet users will not look beyond the first page of search results, it’s important to use search engine optimization to push your ranking as high as possible. SEO services for website optimization address a variety of factors, including: keyword selection, adding and refreshing content, creating search-engine friendly design, building links, and resolving technical issues that may drive search engines away.

How Can Website Optimization Help My Online Business?

When your website isn’t found by search engines, business is lost. Professional SEO services can help you increase your site’s relevance and, in turn, move it higher in the rankings – putting your products and services closer to potential customers. With its ability to generate more quality traffic to your website at a relatively low cost, search engine optimization is an essential part of your online marketing strategy.

Search engine visibility can also be achieved through using automated search engine submission tools, which can regularly submit your website address to national and local search engines and directories. Using these tools in conjunction with website optimization can dramatically impact the amount of traffic to your site.

What is Web Hosting Bandwidth?

What is Web Hosting Bandwidth?

Bandwidth in computer networking refers to the data rate supported by a network connection or interface. Most hosting companies offer a variety of bandwidth options in their plans from 1 G to 100 G, some hosting companies even offer unlimited bandwidth. So exactly what is bandwidth as it relates to web hosting?

Website hosting bandwidth describes the rate at which data can be transferred between a website and computers connected to it within a specific time. Normally it is the calculated monthly in hosting packages by many website hosts, e.g. 1g bandwidth each month, or 5g bandwidth each month.

Bandwidth represents the capacity of the connection. However the overall performance of a website also depends on many other factors as well.

What’s the difference between bandwidth and traffic?

Web hosting bandwidth vs traffic just like highways vs cars. Bandwidth is the number of lanes on the highway and traffic is the number of cars on the highway. Traffic is simply the number of bits that are transferred on network connections. Bandwidth is the number of bits can be transferred on network connections within a given period of time.

If you have 100MB website bandwidth and you host a 40MB video on the website for visitors to download. Each download will create 40MB traffic between the web server and local computer. Two downloads will create 80 MB traffic, three downloads will create 120 MB traffic. If all the three downloads occur at the same time, all the bandwidth will be used up. In such case, someone will have to wait. Your hosting company will cycle through each person downloading the file and transfer a small portion at a time so each person’s file transfer can take place, but the transfer for everyone downloading the video will be slower. The more visitors at the same time, the slower the transfers would be.

How much bandwidth do you need?

This is the question you should ask yourself before signing up a new web hosting account. Bandwidth is often the major concern for popular business websites.

How to estimate and calculate website bandwidth?

 here’s a simple calculation method:

Bandwidth needed = Average Page Views x Average Page Size x Average Daily Visitors x Number of days in a month (31) x Redundant Factor

If you intend to allow people to download files from your site, your bandwidth calculation should be:

Bandwidth needed =(Average Daily Visitors x Average Page Views x Average Page Size) + (Average Daily File Downloads x Average File Size)] x 31 x Fudge Factor

Usually, website hosting companies or plans offer bandwidth in terms of Gigabytes (GB) per month. This is why you need to takes daily averages and multiplies them by 31.

Average Daily Visitors: The total number of monthly visitors/30.
Average Page Size: The average size of your web page.
Average Page Views: The average page viewed per visitors.
Redundant Factor: A safety factor ranged from 1.3 – 1.8.

Average Daily Visitors – The average number of people you expect to visit your website each day.
Average Page Views – The average number of web pages you expect a visitor to view each visit.
Average Page Size – The average size of your web pages in KB.
Redundant Factor: A safety factor ranged from 1.3 – 1.8. Using 1.5 would be safe, which assumes that your estimate is off by 50%.

Check Bandwidth from traffic stats report

An easy way to know how much Bandwidth is enough for your website is to check the traffic stats provided by your previous host. If you have an existing website hosted with a host and decided to transfer the site to a new host, you can refer to the traffic report of stats with last hosting company. Almost all of the web hosting service providers can offer the website stats reporting service.

Usually if you have a brand new same website without much content yet, you can go for a shared hosting, as normally you will not need more than 1GB of bandwidth per month except you will invest a lot of money on ads or hire professional marketing team as soon as the new site launches. It is the same with most personal web hosting or small business websites. If you can expect little traffic to your site always go with a low bandwidth plan at the initial stage. After all, most web hosting companies will offer you upgrade options for more bandwidth if you need.

How can I reduce bandwidth usage?

Is there any way to reduce the bandwidth usage? Yes. If you’d like to reduce the website bandwidth, you can design a website with css and clean code, this can slim down the web page size. Also try reduce the usage of heavy images, especially downloads and videos on your website.

What is the Difference between Linux and Windows Hosting?

What is the Difference between Linux and Windows Hosting?

Linux and Windows are two different types of operating systems. Linux is the most popular operating system for web servers. Since Linux-based hosting is more popular, it has more of the features web designers expect.  So unless you have websites which need specific Windows applications, Linux is the preferred choice.

Windows Specific Applications

Windows applications which require a Windows server:

  • ASP Classic
  • NET
  • MSSQL (Microsoft SQL Server)
  • MS Access (Microsoft Access)
  • Visual Basic Development
  • C#
  • Remote Desktop (dedicated server only)

Windows Dedicated Servers can support additional Windows-specific applications. For some applications, you may need to purchase a license and install the software on your Windows dedicated server.

  • Microsoft Exchange (requires license & Installation)
  • Microsoft SharePoint (requires license & Installation)

Linux Specific Applications

Applications that require a Linux-based server.

  • SSH
  • Scripts or applications that require specific Apache modules

Control Panels

Windows servers and Linux servers use different control panels.

  • cPanelis available on all Linux-based hosting plans, such as Linux Shared, Reseller, VPS and Linux Dedicated Servers.
  • WHM(Web Host Manager) is available on Linux Reseller, VPS and Dedicated Servers.
  • Pleskis available on Windows Shared and Dedicated Servers.

File Names

Another difference  between Linux and Windows servers is that Linux files are case sensitive while Windows files are not.

For example:

  • On a Linux server, htmland Home.html are different names.
  • On a Windows server, htmlHome.htmland HOME.HTML are all the same name.

Server Security

Although many people consider Linux to be more secure than Windows, both operating systems are equally secure. Security really depends more upon the server setup and the administrators running the server.

What Is Spam Mails?

What Is Spam Mails?


Spam is considered to be electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings. Some people define spam even more generally as any unsolicited email. However, if a long-lost brother finds your email address and sends you a message, this could hardly be called spam, even though it is unsolicited. Real spam is generally email advertising for some product sent to a mailing list or newsgroup.

The term spam can also be used to describe any “unwanted” email from a company or website — typically at some point a user would have agreed to receive the email via subscription list opt-in — a newer term called graymail is used to describe this particular type of spam.

Why Spam is a Problem

In addition to wasting people’s time with unwanted email, spam also eats up a lot of network bandwidth. Consequently, there are many organizations, as well as individuals, who have taken it upon themselves to fight spam with a variety of techniques. But because the Internet is public, there is really little that can be done to prevent spam, just as it is impossible to prevent junk mail. However, some online services have instituted policies to prevent spammers from spamming their subscribers.

What is SMTP?

What is SMTP?

The Mailman Inside Our Computers. Or:
What Is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol?

Almost all of your online activity is made possible through the help of protocols—the special networking-software rules and guidelines that allow your computer to link up to networks everywhere so you can shop, read news, send email and more. (Your IP address, which stands for Internet Protocol, is just one of many.)

The protocols are vital to your networking activity and, fortunately for you, you don’t need to manage, install or even think about them. They’re built in to the networking software on your computers. Thank goodness for advanced technology and IT geniuses!

Still, every once in a while, you may find yourself having to learn about a protocol—such as your IP address. That’s the case with a term that affects every email you’ve ever sent out in your entire life—Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, or SMTP. Without it, your emails would go nowhere.

What is SMTP?

SMTP is part of the application layer of the TCP/IP protocol. Using a process called “store and forward,” SMTP moves your email on and across networks. It works closely with something called the Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) to send your communication to the right computer and email inbox.

SMTP spells out and directs how your email moves from your computer’s MTA to an MTA on another computer, and even several computers. Using that “store and forward” feature mentioned before, the message can move in steps from your computer to its destination. At each step, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is doing its job. Lucky for us, this all takes place behind the scenes, and we don’t need to understand or operate SMTP.

SMTP at work.

SMTP provides a set of codes that simplify the communication of email messages between email servers (the network computer that handles email coming to you and going out). It’s a kind of shorthand that allows a server to break up different parts of a message into categories the other server can understand. When you send a message out, it’s turned into strings of text that are separated by the code words (or numbers) that identify the purpose of each section.

SMTP provides those codes, and email server software is designed to understand what they mean. As each message travels towards its destination, it sometimes passes through a number of computers as well as their individual MTAs. As it does, it’s briefly stored before it moves on to the next computer in the path. Think of it as a letter going through different hands as it winds its way to the right mailbox.

Nothing fancy about it.

SMTP is able to transfer only text—it isn’t able to handle fonts, graphics, attachments, etc.—maybe that’s why it’s called simple. Fortunately, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions were created to lend a hand. MIME encodes all the non-text content into plain text. In that transformed format, SMTP is coaxed into transferring the data.

SMTP sometimes stands for “stop.”

Most of us don’t know this, but our Internet Service Providers typically have a limit to the number of emails we can send out over a certain amount of time. Most of the time, it’s limited to a set number per hour or per day.

Each ISP relies on its SMTP to determine (and govern) the email that can be sent out by one connection. (It is a protocol, after all.) For some people who work at home or manage large mailing lists, that could be a problem. After they hit their limit, the ISP will simply stop sending emails. If they think you’re a spammer, they might even shut down your account.

That email limit varies by ISP. For example, the typical Comcast Cable Internet customer is limited to 1,000 emails per day. (Their business customers have a limit of 24,000 emails daily.)

what is server?

what is server?

A server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers. The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server. That machine may be a dedicated server or used for other purposes as well.

In the client/server programming model, a server program awaits and fulfills requests from client programs, which may be running in the same or other computers. A given application in a computer may function as a client with requests for services from other programs and also as a server of requests from other programs.

Servers are often categorized in terms of their purpose. A Web server, for example, is a computer program that serves requested HTML pages or files. A Web client is the requesting program associated with the user. The Web browser in your computer is a client that requests HTML files from Web servers.

Here are a few types of servers, among a great number of other possibilities:

An application server is a program in a computer in a distributed network that provides the business logic for an application program.

A proxy server is software that acts as an intermediary between an endpoint device, such as a computer, and another server from which a user or client is requesting a service.

A mail server is an application that receives incoming e-mail from local users (people within the same domain) and remote senders and forwards outgoing e-mail for delivery.

A virtual server is a program running on a shared server that is configured in such a way that it seems to each user that they have complete control of a server.

A blade server is a server chassis housing multiple thin, modular electronic circuit boards, known as server blades. Each blade is a server in its own right, often dedicated to a single application.

A file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access them.

A policy server is a security component of a policy-based network that provides authorization services and facilitates tracking and control of files.

What Is SEO

What Is SEO

Whenever you enter a query in a search engine and hit ‘enter’ you get a list of web results that contain that query term. Users normally tend to visit websites that are at the top of this list as they perceive those to be more relevant to the query. If you have ever wondered why some of these websites rank better than the others then you must know that it is because of a powerful web marketing technique called Search Engine Optimization (SEO).

SEO is a technique which helps search engines find and rank your site higher than the millions of other sites in response to a search query. SEO thus helps you get traffic from search engines.

This SEO tutorial covers all the necessary information you need to know about Search Engine Optimization – what is it, how does it work and differences in the ranking criteria of major search engines.

1. How Search Engines Work

The first basic truth you need to know to learn SEO is that search engines are not humans. While this might be obvious for everybody, the differences between how humans and search engines view web pages aren’t. Unlike humans, search engines are text-driven. Although technology advances rapidly, search engines are far from intelligent creatures that can feel the beauty of a cool design or enjoy the sounds and movement in movies. Instead, search engines crawl the Web, looking at particular site items (mainly text) to get an idea what a site is about. This brief explanation is not the most precise because as we will see next, search engines perform several activities in order to deliver search results – crawlingindexingprocessingcalculating relevancy, and retrieving.

First, search engines crawl the Web to see what is there. This task is performed by a piece of software, called a crawler or a spider (or Googlebot, as is the case with Google). Spiders follow links from one page to another and index everything they find on their way. Having in mind the number of pages on the Web (over 20 billion), it is impossible for a spider to visit a site daily just to see if a new page has appeared or if an existing page has been modified, sometimes crawlers may not end up visiting your site for a month or two.

What you can do is to check what a crawler sees from your site. As already mentioned, crawlers are not humans and they do not see images, Flash movies, JavaScript, frames, password-protected pages and directories, so if you have tons of these on your site, you’d better run the Spider Simulator below to see if these goodies are viewable by the spider. If they are not viewable, they will not be spidered, not indexed, not processed, etc. – in a word they will be non-existent for search engines.

After a page is crawled, the next step is to index its content. The indexed page is stored in a giant database, from where it can later be retrieved. Essentially, the process of indexing is identifying the words and expressions that best describe the page and assigning the page to particular keywords. For a human it will not be possible to process such amounts of information but generally search engines deal just fine with this task. Sometimes they might not get the meaning of a page right but if you help them by optimizing it, it will be easier for them to classify your pages correctly and for you – to get higher rankings.

When a search request comes, the search engine processes it – i.e. it compares the search string in the search request with the indexed pages in the database. Since it is likely that more than one page (practically it is millions of pages) contains the search string, the search engine starts calculating the relevancy of each of the pages in its index with the search string.

There are various algorithms to calculate relevancy. Each of these algorithms has different relative weights for common factors like keyword density, links, or metatags. That is why different search engines give different search results pages for the same search string. What is more, it is a known fact that all major search engines, like Yahoo!, Google, Bing, etc. periodically change their algorithms and if you want to keep at the top, you also need to adapt your pages to the latest changes. This is one reason (the other is your competitors) to devote permanent efforts to SEO, if you’d like to be at the top.

The last step in search engines’ activity is retrieving the results. Basically, it is nothing more than simply displaying them in the browser – i.e. the endless pages of search results that are sorted from the most relevant to the least relevant sites.

2. Differences Between the Major Search Engines

Although the basic principle of operation of all search engines is the same, the minor differences between them lead to major changes in results relevancy. For different search engines different factors are important. There were times, when SEO experts joked that the algorithms of Bing are intentionally made just the opposite of those of Google. While this might have a grain of truth, it is a matter a fact that the major search engines like different stuff and if you plan to conquer more than one of them, you need to optimize carefully.

There are many examples of the differences between search engines. For instance, for Yahoo! and Bing, on-page keyword factors are of primary importance, while for Google links are very, very important. Also, for Google sites are like wine – the older, the better, while Yahoo! generally has no expressed preference towards sites and domains with tradition (i.e. older ones). Thus you might need more time till your site gets mature to be admitted to the top in Google, than in Yahoo!.

What is search engine?

What is search engine?

Search Engine

Search engines are programs that search documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found. A search engine is really a general class of programs, however, the term is often used to specifically describe systems like Google, Bing and Yahoo! Search that enable users to search for documents on the World Wide Web.

Web Search Engines

Typically, Web search engines work by sending out a spider to fetch as many documents as possible. Another program, called an indexer, then reads these documents and creates an index based on the words contained in each document. Each search engine uses a proprietary algorithm to create its indices such that, ideally, only meaningful results are returned for each query.

As many website owners rely on search engines to send traffic to their website, and entire industry has grown around the idea of optimizing Web content to improve your placement in search engine results.

What is Port Forwarding?

What is Port Forwarding?

Port forwarding, or tunneling, is the behind-the-scenes process of intercepting data traffic headed for a computer’s IP/port combination and redirecting it to a different IP and/or port. A program that’s running on the destination computer (host) usually causes the redirection, but sometimes it can also be an intermediate hardware component, such as a router, proxy server or firewall.

Of course, even though anyone sending data to a server isn’t aware of what’s going on, the request will still get to its ultimate destination.

Playing with packets.

It all starts with the packets that get created when you send a data request over the Internet.

Normally, a network router will examine the header of an IP packet and send it to a linked and appropriate interface, which in turn sends the data to the destination information that’s in the header.

But in port forwarding, the intercepting application (or device) reads the packet header, notes the destination, and then rewrites the header information and sends it to a another computer—one that’s different from the one intended. That secondary host destination may be a different IP address using the same port, a different port on the same IP address, or a completely different combination of the two.

Why port forwarding?

Port forwarding is an excellent way to preserve public IP addresses. It can protect servers and clients from unwanted access, “hide” the services and servers available on a network, and limit access to and from a network. Port forwarding is transparent to the end user and adds an extra layer of security to networks.

In short, port forwarding is used to keep unwanted traffic off networks. It allows network administrators to use one IP address for all external communications on the Internet while dedicating multiple servers with different IPs and ports to the task internally. Port forwarding is useful for home network users who may wish to run a Web server or gaming server on one network.

The network administrator can set up a single public IP address on the router to translate requests to the proper server on the internal network. By using only one IP address to accomplish multiple tasks—and dropping all traffic that is unrelated to the services provided at the firewall—the administrator can hide from the outside world what services are running on the network.

A look at port forwarding.

In the simplified example below, IP Address sends a request to on Port 80. An intermediate host——intercepts the packets, rewrites the packet headers and sends them on to IP Address on Port 8080: –> –>
  Makes a request to   Actually sends to  

The host,, responds to the request, sending it to Then rewrites the packet—indicating that the response is from—and sends it to –> –>
  Sends its response to   Forwards the response to  

As far as is concerned, it has sent a request to on Port 80 and has received a response back from on Port 80. This is not what has happened—the traffic has never actually touched However, because of the way the packets have been rewritten, sees that it has gotten a response from

The perceived destination is always from the perspective of the requesting computer. As it shows in the diagram, even though has become the real-time destination for traffic from, the destination for all traffic (as far as the requesting host knows) is

Port forwarding and proxies.

It probably won’t surprise you to learn that Web proxies use a port-forwarding service. Similar to the above home-network example, Web proxy servers use port forwarding to prevent direct contact between clients and the wide-open world of the Internet. When a proxy or VPN receives your online activity (an email sent or a request to see a website), it inspects and rewrites data packets of your transmission before it moves them to and from their Internet destinations.

What is MySQL? What is a Database? What is SQL?

What is MySQL? What is a Database? What is SQL?

Among the things I’m sometimes asked by new webmasters are “What is MySQL?”, “What is SQL” and “What is a database?”. These questions arise because such terms tend to surface all over the place in connection with the creation of a website. This article explains them in (hopefully) plain English.

Who is This Article For?

This article is written from the point of view of a webmaster and is directed at potential webmasters (or existing webmasters) who are suddenly confronted by cryptic terms like “MySQL database” or “PostgreSQL database” and the like.

It is not meant to be a rigorous academic definition for programming students. If you are one, you should consult a programming book for the proper definition. The explanation below is meant for the layperson who sees these terms pop up in places like web hosts’ feature lists and the “System Requirements” lists for various web software like PHP scripts, and wonder what it means, and whether it’s something that they need to be worried about. In other words, this guide is meant for a non-technical audience seeking to get the big picture and see if it is relevant to them.

What is a Database?

Before I can answer what MySQL means, I have to explain what a computer “database” means.

Essentially, where computers are concerned, a database is just a collection of data. specialized database software, like MySQL, are just programs that lets you store and retrieve that data as efficiently as possible.

A little analogy may help make it clearer why we use specialised database software. Think about the documents stored on your computer. If you were to save all your documents using a (brain-dead) file naming scheme like “1.doc”, “2.doc”, “3.doc”, … “9,999,999.doc” (etc), you will eventually face a problem of finding the right file if you’re looking for a specific document. For example, if you’re looking for a business proposal you made some time ago to XYZ Company, which file should you open? One way is to sequentially check every single file, starting from “1.doc”, till you get the right data. But this is obviously a highly inefficient method of getting the right file. And it’s primarily the result of an inefficient method of storing your data (ie, saving your files) in the first place.

Now, this is of course a ridiculous example. I mean, no one I know saves files with names like these, and even if so, there are many search software that can help you locate the correct file without your having to manually open every single one in sequence. But it serves to make the point that once you have a lot of data, if you don’t have a good system of organising it, finding the correct piece of data is a very time consuming operation. And it becomes more time consuming as the amount of data grows.

A database program is a type of computer software that is designed to handle lots of data, but to store them in such a way that finding (and thus retrieving) any snippet of data is more efficient than it would have been if you simply dumped them willy nilly all over the place. With such a database software, if you (say) keep a list of customers and their shipping addresses, entering and retrieving information about your one millionth customer will not take much longer (if at all) than entering and retrieving information about your 1st customer.

What is SQL? What is MySQL? What is PostgreSQL?

Many computer programs, including web-based programs like blogs, photo galleries and content management systems need to store and retrieve data. For example, blog software need to store the posts (ie, articles) you write, and retrieve them when a visitor goes to your site. Similarly, photo galleries store information about their pictures (for example, for sites that allow users to rate the photos, the numerical rating for each picture is stored in a database). Instead of reinventing the wheel and implementing their own system of storing and retrieving data, these software simply use the specialised database programs I mentioned earlier.

To make it easy for other programs to access data through them, many database software support a computer language called “SQL” (often pronounced as “sequel”). SQL was specially designed for such a purpose. Programs that want the database software to handle the low-level work of managing data simply use that language to send it instructions.

There are many databases that support the use of SQL to access their data, among them MySQL and PostgreSQL. In other words, MySQL is just the brand of one database software, one of many. The same goes for PostgreSQL. These two databases are very popular among programs that run on websites (probably because they are free), which is why you often see one or both of them being advertised in the feature lists of web hosts, as well as being listed as one of the “system requirements” for certain web software (like blogs and content management systems).

Do I Need to Know Which is Better?

For the average webmaster, one who is not writing computer programs for their websites, the pros and cons of MySQL versus PostgreSQL or some other database are not important. All you need to be concerned about is whether your web host provides the database software that your web application needs. Generally, if you use one of the popular blogging software or CMS software, this will often be MySQL. In fact, since practically every commercial web host provides MySQL as part  of one or more of its hosting packages, chances are that you probably don’t even have to worry about this.

Do I Need It?

As mentioned in the previous section, if you use a blogging or CMS software (like WordPress, Drupal or Expression Engine), you will need to place your website on a web host that provides you with a MySQL database. The database will be used by the software to store all your posts (articles), web pages and visitors’ comments.

If, on the other hand, your website was created using a web editor like Dreamweaver or BlueGriffon, and you did not integrate a blog or some other web-based software into your site, chances are that you don’t need MySQL. In any case, if you’re not sure, you can always check the “system requirements” page for the software that you want to use to find out whether you’ll need MySQL.

(Before you ask, the feedback form generated by the Feedback Form Script Wizard does not need MySQL. Not all web-based programs require a MySQL database; only those that need to store data.)

Do I Need to Learn SQL or MySQL or Something Like That?

For the vast majority of webmasters, you don’t need to learn SQL or learn how to use MySQL, even if you’re setting up a blog. The software you use, be it WordPress or something else, will do all the dirty work of storing and retrieving your data for you. All you need to learn is how to use that particular software (eg, WordPress). Things like MySQL and other databases are like the engines of a car. Just as you don’t need to learn how to design a car engine to be able to use a car, so also you do not need to know how to directly write to or read a MySQL database to use a blogging software.

Of course, if you are a programmer, intending to write a computer program that actually accesses MySQL or some other SQL database, then you will need to learn SQL (as well as a programming language). But then, if you are one, you probably already knew that. Note for the newcomer: you don’t need to be a programmer to be a webmaster. Creating a website, even if you manually code your website directly in HTML, is not programming. So don’t worry.